Modern political Zionism emerges in the late 18th century.
Its leaders are mainly secular Jews who have moved out of the ghetto but are pushed back to their people by antisemitism.
These include Moses Hess, Leon Pinsker, Max Nordau and most famously Theodor Herzl.
It is Herzl who will raise Zionism to the level of an international movement commanding the attention of world leaders.
Photo credit: Central Zionist Archives